Team Management Roles – PAEI Model

To create a successful business you need a good management team.

Having a good mix of managers leads to greater success as you can draw on different skills and behaviours to get tasks done.

But how do you create a successful management team? It’s a difficult question to answer as we all view each other and behaviours differently.

Effective management teams work well together. They are able to solve problems together, motivate teams together and drive performance and the business forward. But they also have some key individual roles to fill.

Filling these roles can be challenging. But a good start is to define what these individual roles are.

Management expert and founder of the Adizes Institute Dr. Ichack Adizes developed a model that had helped businesses around the world develop management teams. This model is the PAEI model.

The model highlights four management roles that businesses need to be successful. The four roles in the PAEI model are:

Producer – This person holds responsibility for the product or service that the business offers. They ensure the business goals and objectives are met and ensure that the product or service delivers what it is expected to.

Producers are results orientated and work incredibly hard to get these results.

Administrator – This person has a focus on how tasks are done. They are process driven and look at the way things are done. They look at processes, rules, policies and procedures. They take a logical and analytical approach to their role. They take their time to ensure things are done correctly.

Added to that, Administrators are great at developing policies and processes that the business requires.

Entrepreneur – These are the ideas people. Incredibly creative and great at producing ideas to solve problems in the business.

Often optimistic, they look at the bigger picture and imagine the vision rather than the practicality of getting there.

They can also spot potential threats to the business and even though they are somewhat disorganised and illogical in their thinking they add lots of value to the tea.

Integrator – This person is relationship driven and works hard to bring people together. They create a harmonious environment and are very empathetic.

They work methodically and focus on the process and people rather than the overall result.

They ensure that everyone is listened to and they listen to everyone.

There is a link here to personality profiling. Certainly the roles above are also described in Jungian types.

To ensure the PAEI model works well, the business needs to ensure that a mix of all 4 roles make up the management team.

The difficulty is though, if there is a close link to personality (Jungian types) this will suggest that we can all demonstrate the behaviours of each role. But, there will be one that we feel more comfortable demonstrating and will work more naturally in.

When recruiting managers, look at the individuals working style rather than their personality style. This is where you will begin to understand more about their preferred style and approach and are more likely to learn more about them and their behaviour.

Learn more about Leadership and Management Skills by attending a Leadership Skills Training Course. Take a look at Revolution Learning and Development Ltd and their range of Leadership Skills Training Courses here.


Teamwork – Lessons From Geese

Geese demonstrate some great examples of teamwork. They show some simple but highly effective teamwork principles that we can use in both our business and personal life.

Geese work well as a team to achieve a common goal. They work together to help and support each other and these principles provide the basis of a highly effective team.

They show us 5 principles or lessons for effective teamwork.

Here are the 5 lessons:

Leeson 1 – When geese fly they fly in a V formation. As each goose flaps its wings it provides uplift for the geese that are behind making git easier for them to fly longer distances.

This shows us that people who have a common goal and a sense of belonging get reach their goals faster and easier because they are all providing help and support to each other.

Lesson 2 – When a goose falls out of formation it feels the drag as it is no longer feeling the benefit of the lift described in lesson one. It work shard to get back into the formation to get the full benefit once again and rejoin the group.

This shows that if we try to fly alone we won’t feel the support of the rest of the team. If we do fall out of formation we should do all we can to get back.

Lesson 3 – When the lead goose gets tired it moves to the back of the formation and another goose takes over the lead.

This shows us that good teams understand that it pays to take turns at the harder tasks and sharing the lead.

Lesson 4 – The geese following the lead honk to encourage those in front to maintain the speed and work rate.

This shows us that a team needs to encourage each other to achieve and keep going. Our ‘honking’ should be useful though and not something that discourages or damages the team.

Lesson 5 – If a goose gets sick or wounded, two geese drop out of the formation and follow the bird to the ground. They do this to provide protection. They stay with that member until they are well enough to fly again or dies. They then head out on their own or join another formation or catch up with their own flock.

This shows us that a team stands by each other. They support the ‘weaker members’ and stand by them through difficult times. They help people to get back on their feet.

Does your team perform as well as geese?

Mintzberg’s Management Roles

Mintzberg’s Management Roles describes the different roles a manager or leader has.

Managers and leaders have to carry out lots of different tasks. This means they have lots or roles to carry out.

You may find yourself dealing with conflict in the team, having to motivate team members to be more productive, negotiating with senior managers, attending meetings or problem solving.

Throughout the course of the day there are probably multiple different tasks you need to carry out, and each one of those tasks requires a different approach to ensure its completed quickly and effectively.

To describe what the different parts of a leader or managers role is, Henry Mintzberg said in his book “Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations'” that a manager or leader has 10 primary roles or behaviours. These categorise the different roles or functions that a leader or manager has. These are called Mintzberg’s Management Roles.

The 10 Management roles are split into 3 different categories:

  • Interpersonal – Conversations between 2 or more people
  • Informational – Communicating information out to other
  • Decisional – Power and confidence to make decisions

The 10 Management roles then fall into these 3 categories. The 10 roles are:


  • Figurehead – Role modelling the right behaviours that the team should demonstrate. The team will look to the manager or leader of a lead on how to act and behave in the business
  • Leader – Providing leadership to the team or other people in the business. This is where you set, monitor and manage performance standards
  • Liaison – Communicating in the team and outside of the team. This is about getting to know people in the business and building an effective network


  • Monitor – Observing and overseeing the team, checking performance standards are being met. Looking out for and learning about changes in the business and the industry it sits in to communicate to the team
  • Disseminator – Communicating useful and relevant information to the team
  • Spokesperson – Communicating information about the team and the business to people outside


  • Entrepreneur – Creating necessary change in the team and the business. Looking for issues, developing creative ideas to solve them and implementing change successful
  • Disturbance Handler – Cleaning blockages. The leader has a responsibility to facilitate conversations when people disagree or can’t find a way forward
  • Resource Allocator – Delegating the right jobs to the people with he right skills and interest for the tasks that need to be completed. This might be providing the right money to projects and the right people to tasks
  • Negotiator – Getting involved in negotiations with the team, business and outside parties

The idea behind the model is to think about how much time you spend in each area. We may be guilty of being very comfortable in just a handful of them and neglect the others.

Consider which roles you are good at and which roles need some development. Consider the skills required for each role you need to work on and look at how to develop those skills more. Apply the to develop confidence in those areas and monitor the results. Look for ways to constantly evolve and develop further.

For more ideas on Leadership and Management techniques why not take a Leadership and Management training course. Look no further than our training and development partner Revolution Learning and Development. You can learn more on their Leadership and Management training courses page here.





Management By Wandering Around (MBWA)

Gone are the days when managers and leaders can sit in their office dealing with the day to day tasks they need to do and not taking note of what is happening outside.

Managers and leaders that do this tend to communicate with their team by email, delegate tasks by outlook and only talk to people when things go wrong.

By doing this they don’t get to build effective relationships with the team and this can impact on performance.

Management by Wandering Around (or Management by Walking Around) can be traced back to the executives of Hewlett-Packard in the 1970’s and was described by Tom Peters in his book In search of Excellence. It shows that in order to get the best from people and really understand what is going on in the team, a manager or leader needs to walk around and talk to the team.

They need to work alongside the team members, asking questions about them and their work and offer help, support, feedback and coaching when needed.

Seems easy? Of course it is, but often excuses such as ‘there’s more pressing things to do’ are used. Using Management by Walking Around required the leader or manager to be disciplined and take time to do this.

Using Management by Walking Around improves your visibility as a manger or leader and give the team the perception that you are approachable. They are much more likely to approach you with issues and concerns rather than keep them to themselves. It builds trust and helps the leader learn more about the team and what’s going on in the business. It increases motivation and productivity.

Here are some quick tips for making Management by Walking Around work:

Make Time – No matter how busy you are, remind yourself of the benefits of getting out there and talking to the team. Make it a part of your daily routine.

Do It Along – Done bring the whole management team with you. This can be daunting and people are less likely to talk

Don’t Single People Out – Take time to talk to everyone. If its a big team, then make sure you get to everyone over the space of say a week

Ask Questions and Follow Up – Ask people for feedback, ask what the challenges are, ask how things are in general. If you need to be sure to get back to people with feedback if you need to go away and look into something

Keep it Positive – This isn’t about giving developmental feedback, its about fact-finding or gathering information. If you are going to give feedback keep it general and keep it positive – like thanking people for all they do.

Be Self-Aware – Take care and think about your body language and your language. Keep it friendly and informal

Keep it Random – Although you want to make it part of your routine, don’t keep it at the same time each day. The more people come to expect it they more they think ‘here they come again’. Use Management by Wandering Around randomly. It should be unstructured.

To find out more about other leadership and management techniques why not take a Leadership Training Course. Look no further than our training and development partner Revolution Learning and Development Ltd. You can find out more information on their Leadership Skills Training Courses page here.



Are You Making These Leadership Mistakes?

Leading people is a difficult job. You probably have lots of tasks to manage, deadlines to meet and requests from your team to deal with. Alongside that you have to ensure that your team performs to the standard you and your business expect.

Because you have all of these things to deal with, the last thing you need is something going wrong – especially when it comes to your team members not performing to the standards they should be.

It’s easy to lay blame at their door, but a leader also needs to look at themselves to see if they are the underlying cause (or some of the cause) of the problems.

Are you making these leadership mistakes?

Not giving the team feedback – you know it’s part of your job, but when the pressure is on to deliver results and deadlines, feedback might seem like one of those distractions you could do without. 1400 executives who were asked by the Ken Blanchard companies suggest failing to provide feedback is one of the biggest mistakes leaders make.

Providing regular feedback to your team members, both positive and developmental (not negative) keeps your team members in the picture and helps them to perform better. Without it they’ll just continue to do what they are doing. If they are performing well, a lack of feedback will eventually lead to demotivation and decreased performance. It’s easier to maintain performance than manage poor performance.

Make time for the team and for providing regular coaching and feedback. Plan it i as a regular activity.

Not Balancing Your Approach – don’t micromanage your team. Standing over them and constantly observing and making changes will eventually lead to demotivation. But, we’ve already mentioned the impact of being too-standoffish above.

Get the balance right. Trust your team members to deliver and make regular check-ins with them. See the points below about setting your team members to work.

Not Managing the Relationship – Being everyone’s friend may seem like a nice thing to be, but it can lead to more problems than you may think. Being too friendly makes it harder to manage people when things don’t go so well. People may take advantage of your good natured approach and will find it hard to take you seriously when you have to become more assertive  and deal with their poor performance.

You can have a very good relationship with your team without being their friend. Being supportive and approachable is a good starting point.

Setting Unclear Goals and Objectives – Your team need direction. They need to know what is expected of them. Leaving them to their own devices or setting fuzzy or unclear goals will certainly lead to under-performance. You can lay some blame with them for not asking enough questions, but the responsibility clearly lies with the leader to ensure all goals and objectives are clear. Using SMART is a good starting point for this.

Role Modelling the Wrong Behaviours – how your team behave and what attitude they have will largely depend on that of the leader. The team will look to the leader for some guidance how how to act and behave. If the leaders attitude and behaviour are negative, you can’t blame the team for demonstrating the same.

The Wrong Motivation – ask anyone what motivates them to achieve more, you can almost guarantee that money is on the list – in most cases in first place. Money isn’t the only motivator there is. If you wave money n front of people they will perform, but only until its in their back pocket. Once its there performance begins to slip until the next wad of cash is available.

Understanding what really motivates people is very important. Taking to your team members and finding out what makes them tick means you can provide them with what they need. Whether that’s more recognition (i.e. pats on the back), more challenging objectives, being in control or something else, once you know you can give them what’s needed.

Not Delegating – delegation can be used for 2 things – a time management approach and a development tool. By providing more development opportunities you can provide motivation to the team. It also means you can focus on getting more of your other tasks done if the team are taking responsibility for the others.

Don’t use the excuse of not having time to delegate. Invest the time now in developing someone to carry out a task means you reap the rewards a bit later.

Do you need some help with any of the above? A leadership skills training course will provide lots of help, advice, guidance, tips and tools on all of the above points. Look no further than our training and development partner Revolution Learning and Development Ltd. Take a look at their Leadership Skills Training Courses page here for more details.



Holding Effective Meetings

Meetings are one of those things that seem to be unavoidable in business today. For some of us they feel like a bit of a chore, but they are a very important communication tool.

If meetings are not run correctly they will feel like they become a bit of a drain on your time, so here are some top tips for effective meetings.


1. Ensure your meeting has an objective or objectives – Rather than talk about what will be discussed in the meeting, think about what outputs the meeting will create. For example, avoid ‘we’re meeting to talk about last weeks sales figures’ and focus on ‘we’re meeting to develop some actions on how to achieve our sales targets for next week’.

If you can’t think of an objective for your meeting you should ask yourself if a meeting is needed.

2. Use and stick to an agenda – An agenda will help you and the other attendees focus on what needs to be discussed. Flip the agenda up and put it on the wall where it is always visible and use it to manage discussions, especially when the discussion goes ‘off-piste’.

3. Capture things that can’t be answered – Don’t get drawn into what you think the answers to questions are. Use a ‘car park’ sheet or flip chart to capture those things you are unsure about then move on.

4. Start with any other business – If you must have an any other business section in your meeting, but it at the beginning. It seems unorthodox but you want the meeting to finish positively. You could go even further to say that if an item didn’t make the agenda then it won’t be discussed.

5. Have a time keeper – make sure someone is watching the time so you don’t over-run. Set out times for each discussion point then stick to it.

6. Ensure everyone has their say – Don’t leave people out. Even if someone is being really quiet, ask them for their opinion.

7. Finish on time – Ensure your meeting finishes at the agreed time. Over running will put people into a negative mind-set making harder to achieve your outcomes.

8. Ensure your meeting has achieved it’s objectives – Check back through the objectives and ensure the meeting has driven the outcomes you were looking for.

We hope you find these tips useful. You can find out more about holding effective meetings as well as improving other areas of your communication with a Communication Skills Training Course. Look no further than our training and development partner Revolution Learning and Development Ltd. To get more information take a look at their Communication Skills training course page.

Appreciative Inquiry – A Problem Solving Technique

Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a model for analysis, decision-making and creating change within organisations. It’s about the search for the best in people or an organisation.

When things aren’t going to plan, it’s easy to start looking at all of the things that are going wrong and considering what can be done to fix them. When it comes to problem solving this tends to be the normal approach and in some cases the right approach to take.

What it can do in some situations is drive so much negativity that it’s hard to find the the things that are wrong, just because when we talk negatively we tend to react negatively (take a negative attitude). It then becomes much more difficult to think of positive solutions with a ‘negative hat’ on.

Appreciative Inquiry is about looking at positives – to create positivity. When we feel positive we’re much more likely to succeed. The idea of Appreciative Inquiry was developed by David Cooperrider of Case Western Reserve University in the 1980s.

Lets start by looking at the two words that make up the name of the technique. This should help us to begin to understand what it all means:

Appreciate – recognise the value of the contributions of the things or people around us

Inquire – explore and discover, to better understand and be open to new ideas and possibilities

When put together, it means that we appreciate what is good and valuable in the present situation, then we can discover and learn about ways to effect positive change for the future.

To use Appreciate Inquiry we first need to start by thinking positively and looking for positives in any given situation. You can then apply the 5 D’s of Appreciative Inquiry:

Define – Define the problem. Before you can start to analyse a problem or situation you first need to be clear on exactly what you are looking at. Because you have chosen a positive mindset, you will begin to look at the problem from a more positive viewpoint. Think about the language you use, the way you communicate with people working with you on the problem and what kind of behaviours you demonstrate. Talk about things from a positive viewpoint i.e. instead of saying ‘how to fix poor sales’ say ‘how to increase sales’.

Discover – Here is were you begin to look at the past and look at all of the things that are good, or even right back to a time when things were good or better. Understand what was/is good, why it was was good. Find out what people find most valuable about the organisation, the current process or products and services. Once you have all of this you can not start to look at the data and begin to understand why it was good – what were the factors that were making it good?

Dream – At this stage you should begin to think about the ‘what could be’. Building vivid pictures and ideas of what the future could look like if things were good/better again. You should think about how to take the things from the previous stage and consider how good things would be if it was like that again. Use techniques such as brainstorming to consider how these things might work and what could be be achieved.

Design – Here you need to start looking at how practical your ideas are – will the past work again or have things changes so significantly that this just won’t work anymore. This is where you need to think about systems, processes and plans of how to make the vision come to life. A Process Mapping Training course can help here. Look no further than our training and Development Partner Revolution Learning and Development. See details on their Process Mapping Training Course here.

Deliver – This is the stage where you begin to plan your strategy to achieve the ideas you cam up with in the dream stage. It’s taking the points from the design stage and beginning to turn those into a workable plan. You need to keep the dream/vision as a point of focus and build plans to move closer towards it. Use Project Planning techniques such as plans, milestones and objectives to move closer to the dream. Take a look at Revolution Learning and Developments Project Management Training Course as this will provide some useful insight on this stage.

So, next time you’re faced with a problem, don’t always think negatively – look for the positives and use the Appreciative Inquiry technique to find better ways to get a more positive outcome.